Some bacteria are able to produce feather-digesting enzymes that will convert the protein fraction into a digestible form (Shih, 1993). Digestibility is very variable according to the processing method, and should be considered for a proper feed formulation. Egypt. Hydrolyzed Chicken Feather Meal is the product resulting from the treatment under pressure of clean, fresh feathers from slaughtered chickens, free of additives, and/or accelerators. Graduate School, Calsamiglia, S.; Stern, M. D., 1995. Another issue is that keratin, the main component (80-100%) of feather proteins, is poorly digestible when raw (Moran et al., 1967). Research report in 1989, 1990; swine breeding and production, Dep. Earlier experiments had inconsistent conclusions. Further introduction (between 60-86 kg BW) of feather meal in pigs diet had no effect on carcass leanness (Ssu et al., 2004). Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). The improvement of the utilization of feather meal as protein source for duck. Dairy Sci., 81 (5): 1358-1363. It is rich in cystine (4.6% protein) but poor in methionine (0.7% protein), histidine (0.9% protein) and, to a less extent, tryptophane (0.6% protein). J. Anim. Utilization of hydrolysed feather meal as a protein source in growing-finishing swine diets. effect this in the garden are, moisture levels, soil temperature and the Poult. Reports, 3: 224-230, Bishop, C. D.; Angus, R. A.; Watts, S. A., 1995. Feather meal is an effective source of metabolisable protein and of sulfur amino-acids, mainly consisting in cysteine, while only very little methionine is available and could be limiting. Sci., 83 (1): 187-195, England, M. L. ; Broderick, G. A. ; Shaver, R. D. ; Combs, D. K., 1997. Feather meal is a rather inexpensive protein source, with high rumen undegradable protein (RUP). Zootec., 55 (3): 324-333, Rojas, O. J.; Stein, H. H., 2012. Feather Meal, like blood meal, contains about 13 percent nitrogen, but it is derived from a different form of protein than blood meal. Swine Prod. 99. Asian-Australas. Prod., 7 (1): 103-110, Bargo, F. ; Rearte, D. H. ; Santini, F. J.; Muller, L. D., 2001. J. Anim. Livest. Poult. All feather meals produced within the EU are reported to be hydrolized (Crawshaw, 2019). Benefits for Outdoor Gardens. Ruminal disappearance, intestinal and total digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of some concentrate supplements. Midwest Swine Nutr. Sci. Feeding 11 kg piglets with 1.5% (dietary level) enzymatic feather meal or spray-dried porcine plasma yielded similar growth rate and similar intestinal health parameters. Feed information and animal production. Given these results and the variability of the products, it can be recommended to limit feather meal incorporation to 2.5% in broilers, and use feather meal at 5% only for very good quality meals. Int. The utilization of hydrolysed feather meal as a protein source in pig and poultry rations. An earlier experiment included feather meal at 9% (dietary DM) without impairing growth rate feed efficiency or carcass traits (Chiba et al., 1996). New dietary protein sources for animal production in South East Asia. Proc. Alkaline hydrolysis of keratin can be done with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). It is one of many ingredients that a nutritionist will use to formulate a complete feed. In sows with litter with a lower daily gain, inclusion of feather meal had no effect on sows and litter performance (Southern et al., 2000). Increasing steam pressures of 204, 276 or 345 kPa during 30 min, at pH 5.7 or 9, have resulted in increasing pepsin digestibility but also in a lower cystine content of feather meal (Latshaw, 1990). Effective supplemental protein in a pressure cooking rendering process feather from poultry slaughterhouses and the at..., H. 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