Etymology: From Renaissance Latin casus genitivus, literally "case pertaining to origin, birth", from genitus the perfect passive participle of gigno. The genitive -é suffix is only used with the predicate of a sentence: it serves the role of mine, yours, hers, etc. They are as follows (with comparison to the nominative pronouns): Unlike the personal ones, the genitive relative pronouns are in regular use and are as follows (with comparison to the nominative relative pronouns): The genitive case is often used to show possession or the relation between nouns: A simple s is added to the end of a name: The genitive case is also commonly found after certain prepositions: The genitive case can sometimes be found in connection with certain adjectives: The genitive case is occasionally found in connection with certain verbs (some of which require an accusative before the genitive); they are mostly either formal or legal: The ablative case of Indo-European was absorbed into the genitive in Classical Greek. The possessed object is left in the nominative case. They is in the nominative case because it is the subject of the sentence. Genitive case marking existed in Proto-Semitic, Akkadian, and Ugaritic. A genitive can also serve purposes indicating other relationships. The genitive case refers to the case used for a noun, pronoun, or adjective to show ownership of a noun. The nominative case refers to the grammatical case used for a noun or pronoun when it is the subject of a verb. For example, some verbs may feature arguments in the genitive case; and the genitive case may also have adverbial uses (see adverbial genitive). It has been found, however, that Japanese will in rare cases allow accusative case to convert to genitive, if specific conditions are met in the clause in which the conversion appears. For example, English my is either a separate possessive adjective or an irregular genitive of I, while in Finnish, for example, minun is regularly agglutinated from minu- "I" and -n (genitive). Possessive pronouns are distinct pronouns, found in Indo-European languages such as English, that function like pronouns inflected in the genitive. The genitive is used with some prepositions: me anë ('by means of'), nga ana ('on behalf of', 'from the side of'), për arsye ('due to'), për shkak ('because of'), me përjashtim ('with the exception of'), në vend ('instead of'). This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 08:46. In Czech, Slovak and Serbo-Croatian, negating with the genitive case is perceived as rather archaic and the accusative is preferred, but genitive negation in these languages is still not uncommon, especially in music and literature.[7]. In Russian there is no distinction between [subject] not having an [object] and [object] not being present at [subject]'s. If it were a genitive case as many other languages have (including Old English), one would expect something like *the Queen’s of England dress or, to emulate languages with a single consistent genitive case, *the England’s queen’s dress. If the possessed object is feminine, the clitic is e. If the possessed object is plural, the clitic is e regardless of the gender. For example, in the phrase bean an tí (woman of the house), tí is the genitive case of teach, meaning "house". With the exception of Bulgarian and Macedonian, all Slavic languages decline the nouns and adjectives in accordance with the genitive case using a variety of endings depending on the word's lexical category, its gender, and number (singular or plural). 이것은 그 남자 자동차예요. The stem may change, however, with consonant gradation and other reasons. Possessive grammatical constructions, including the possessive case, may be regarded as a subset of genitive construction. To indicate possession the ending of the noun indicating the possessor changes depending on the word's ending in the nominative case. Compare the sentences: In Russian, special partitive case or sub-case is observed for some uncountable nouns which in some contexts have preferred alternative form on -у/ю instead of standard genitive on -а/я: выпил чаю ('drank some tea'), but сорта чая ('sorts of tea'). Definition of genitive-case in the Definitions.net dictionary. An English case is a grammatical category for the inflection of nouns and pronouns that shows the relationship of those nouns and pronouns to other words in a sentence. Familiarity information: GENITIVE used as an adjective is very rare. For example, some verbs may feature arguments in the genitive case; and the genitive case may also have adverbial uses (see adverbial genitive). See more. Russian prepositions using genitive case: от (from), с, со (from), до (before, up to), без (without), кроме (excepting), вместо (instead of), после (after), вдоль (along), около (around), у (near, by), во время (during), насчёт (regarding), etc. In Estonian, the genitive marker -n has elided with respect to Finnish. Possessives can also be formed by the construction (pol.) (If not, it is usually pronounced -e '에') Only some personal pronouns retain a distinctive genitive which comes from the amalgamation of the pronoun plus -ui '의'. the door of the house) and for nouns following a preposition. For example: If the possessor is not the predicate of the sentence, the genitive is not used. The genitive and the possessive case look very similar because they both pertain to ownership. What does genitive case mean? But, Modern Korean: igeoseun geu namja jadongchayeyo. Singular masculine and neuter nouns of the strong declension in the genitive case are marked with -(e)s. Generally, one-syllable nouns favour the -es ending, and it is obligatory with nouns ending with a sibilant such as s or z. There are four main cases in English. However, the cases have completely different functions, and the form of the accusative has developed from *-(e)m. (The same sound change has developed into a synchronic mutation of a final m into n in Finnish, e.g. Depending on the last letter of the noun, the genitive case endings may vary. By the time of Middle Persian, the genitive case had been lost and replaced by an analytical construction which is now called Ezāfe. For example: The Japanese possessive is constructed by using the suffix -no 〜の to make the genitive case. This phenomenon is called suffixaufnahme. The genitive singular definite article for masculine and neuter nouns is des, while the feminine and plural definite article is der. In some languages, nouns in the genitive case may be found in inclusio – that is, between the main noun's article and the noun itself. What is the nominative case? The genitive case is also used in many prepositional constructions. In Kannada, the genitive case-endings are: for masculine or feminine nouns ending in "ಅ" (a): ನ (na), for neuter nouns ending in "ಅ" (a): ದ (da), for all nouns ending in "ಇ" (i), "ಈ" (ī), "ಎ" (e), or "ಏ" (ē): ಅ (a), for all nouns ending in "ಉ" (u), "ಊ" (ū), "ಋ" (r̥), or "ೠ" (r̥̄): ಇನ (ina). *Examples: His: அவன் + உடைய = அவனுடைய, Doctor's: மருத்துவர் + உடைய = மருத்துவருடைய, மருத்துவர் + இன் = மருத்துவரின் Kumar's: குமார் + உடைய = குமாருடைய, குமார்+ இன் = குமாரின், Learn how and when to remove this template message, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, "Property-Denoting NPs and Non-Canonical Genitive Case", "Criteria For Case Forms in Finnish and Hungarian Grammars", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Genitive_case&oldid=988797333, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from December 2008, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, relationship indicated by the noun being modified (", Names of astronomical constellations are Latin, and the genitives of their names are used in naming objects in those constellations, as in the. 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