Introduction to the work of Marcel Mauss (F. Baker, Trans. He possessed an encyclopaedic mind familiar with an exceptional breadth of ethnographic and linguistic knowledge. : Free Press. Forme et raison de l'échange dans les sociétés archaïques" [Essay on the gift. L'Année sociologique (1925). ). . 2d ed. Langevin, the second son of Victor Langevin, a…, geology, natural history, botany. He also taught ethnography from 1927 to 1939 at the Institute of Ethnography, which he helped to found in 1927. Univ. This transcription of a one-hour lecture comes from a edited… First, there are the major ethnological studies: the great Essazi sur le don of 1925, “Effect physique chez I” individu de 1’idée de mort suggérée par la collectivité (Australie, Nouvelle-Zélande)” of 1926, “Les techniques du corps” of 1936, and “Une categorie de 1’esprit humain: La notion de personne, celle de ’mof’” of 1938. After the First World War, a tragedy which resulted in the death of Durkheim, his son André and several contributors to L'Année sociologique, and during which Mauss had volunteered and served as an interpreter, the latter undertook the difficult task of replacing his uncle and he attempted to relaunch L'Année sociologique, but only two volumes appeared, in 1925 and 1927. Revue de I“histoire des religions 58:163–203. Mauss also led an active political life. Then, encouraged by the current exoticism, which was attracting a new public to ethnology, Mauss worked together with Lucien Lévi-Bruhl and Paul Rivet, and in 1925 he set up the Institut d'ethnologie de l'université de Paris. Mauss, Marcel, and Paul Fauconnet. Vie socialiste. Most of Mauss's early published work was in collaboration with other scholars and was published in L'Année. (1899–1905) 1909 Hubert, Henri;. Paris: Payot. In addition to their major joint work, “De quelques formes primitives de classification” (Durkheim & Mauss 1903), he compiled statistical tables for Durkheim’s study of suicide, and they collaborated in writing reviews. . Mauss also assisted, and eventually succeeded, Durkheim as editor of the journal L’Année Sociologique (“The Sociological Year”). ." Like Durkheim, he supported Dreyfus and Zola, and he was a leading member of the Dreyfusard Groupe des Etudiants Collectivistes. ." Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. He taught, in addition, at the Collége de France from 1930 to 1939. LÉvi-Strauss, Claude (1950) 1960 Introduction á l’oeuvre de Marcel Mauss. His views on the theory and method of ethnology are thought to have influenced many eminent social scientists, including Claude Lévi-Strauss, A.R. ." LÉVI-STRAUSS, CLAUDE 1945 French Sociology. From his university days Mauss was also politically active, supporting Dreyfus and the socialists. Pages 281–310 in Marcel Mauss, Sociologie et anthropologie. Born to a family of merchants and rabbis at Épinal in 1872, Mauss studied philosophy at Bordeaux under Durkheim. The evolutionary, pluralist, and liberal quality of his socialism, akin to that of Jaures, can be seen in the “Conclusions” to The Gift ( 1954, pp. Mauss, Marcel. In general, it may be said that Mauss’s theoretical contributions result from putting Durkheimian sociology to work, de-emphasizing its least acceptable features (the latent mysticism of the group, the crowd psychology, the identification of historical origin and analytical simplicity) and demonstrating its considerable explanatory power. Mauss was active in French political life participating in the support of *Dreyfus, and in the socialist and cooperative movements. 1901 Fauconnet, Paul; and Mauss, Marcel Sociologie. He had a direct influence, however, on French ethnology, inspiring such figures as A. Métraux, M. Leenhardt, M. Griaule, G. Dumézil, R. Bastide, and L. Dumont. Journal de psychologic 18:425–434. It is filled with articles from 500+ journals and chapters from … ), Twentieth Century Sociology (1945), 503–37; idem, in: M. Mauss, Sociologie et anthropologie (1950), introd. Mauss placed third in the national agrégation competition of 1895 and decided to de-vote himself to research. On the death of Durkheim, Mauss became editor of the journal. Once he became a professor, Mauss was involved in the cooperative movement and the Socialist Party and published numerous articles in L'Humanité, of which he had been one of the founders. In the work of Mauss was the intention to soften the dogmatic tone of Durkheim. (October 16, 2020). Through his…, KoyrÉ, Alexandre 1934 Fragment d’un plan de sociologie generale descriptive. "Une catégorie de l'esprit humain: la notion de personne, celle de « moi », un plan de travail" ("A category of the human spirit: the idea of the person, the idea of 'self' a plan"). Evans-Pritchard, and Melville J. Herskovits. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. → First published in Journal de psychologic normale et pathologique. He attended the University of Bordeaux, where he studied philosophy; one of his professors was his uncle, the sociologist Émile Durkheim. The philosophical atmosphere was Neo-Kantian. Gugler, Josef 1961 Die neuere franzosische Soziologie: Ansätze zu einer Standortbestimmung der Soziologie. Mauss, Marcel. He was a founder of the Ethnology Institute of the University of Paris (1925) and also taught at the Collège de France (1931–39). Contains a selected bibliography. The form and reason of exchange in archaic societies]. First, he exercised a formative influence upon an entir…, Marceau, Richard, LL.B. The main debate in Durkheim's first books at the end of the nineteenth century revolved around the conflict between the individual and society, one of the problems faced by sociology since its inception being its specific nature and its relation to other disciplines, particularly psychology. A Dictionary of Sociology. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mauss-marcel, Fournier, Marcel "Mauss, Marcel Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. "Esquisse d'une théorie générale de la magie" ("Outline of a general theory of magic"). First published in Volume 9 of Année sociologique. For Mauss, gift exchange is associated with societies that are based on kinship relations that define the transactors and their relations to each other. Edited by Marcel Fournier. Translated and edited with an introduction by Rodney Needham. . It is indicative of the cooperative nature of the work done by the brilliant young scholars whom Durkheim had assembled around the journal Année sociologique (published in 12 volumes between 1898 and 1913) that almost all of Mauss’s major work in this period was written in collaboration: with Hubert he published “Essai sur la nature et la fonction du sacrifice” in 1899, “Esquisse d’une theorie generale de la magie” in 1904, and “Introduction a I’analyse de quelques phenomenes religieux” in 1908; with Beuchat he published “Essai sur les variations saisonniéres des societes eskimos” in 1906; and with Fauconnet he published an important encyclopedia article on sociology in 1901. "Mauss, Marcel Paris: Gallimard. physics. More generally, his influence is especially apparent in the anthropological work emanating from Oxford (via Evans-Pritchard) and in the work of the Leiden school (especially F. D. E. van Ossenbruggen and J. P. B. de Josselin de Jong). https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/mauss-marcel, "Mauss, Marcel Encyclopedia.com. C. Lévi-Strauss, in: G. Gurvitch and W.E. When cultural phenomena, so to speak, are of the same order of the language used to discuss them, the weight of the words is much less perceptible. Volume 30, pages 165–176 in La grande encyclopedie: Inventaire raisonné des sciences., des lettres et desarts. → First published in Journal de psychologie. In 1925 he helped to found, and then became joint director of, the Institut d‘Ethnologie de I’Université de Paris, which, by virtue of the instruction it provided and the publications it sponsored, contributed considerably to the development of field work by younger anthropologists. However, the date of retrieval is often important. 2d ed. (Apart from a brief voyage to Morocco, Mauss himself did no field work.). Paris: Alcan.→ A collection of previously published articles. . ." He took seriously Durkheim's dictum that science progressed through collective effort and neglected his own researches. According to Lévi-Strauss, it is the great misfortune of modern ethnology that Mauss did not exploit his discovery; he himself applied it in his theory of the exchange basis of cross-cousin marriage, which, he maintains, shows that in the field of kinship “the analogy with language, so strongly affirmed by Mauss, has permitted the discovery of precise rules, according to which there are formed, in any society whatever, cycles of reciprocity, whose mechanical laws are thenceforth known, permitting the use of deductive reasoning and offering the promise of a vast science of communication of which anthropology will be a part" ( 1960, p. xxxvi). 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