The famous Benedictine Abbey of Cluny, founded in 910, set the example which was widely imitated throughout France and Germany. The Lethbridge Nursing Mission in Alberta was a representative Canadian voluntary mission. Some nurses were captured by the Japanese, but in practice they were kept out of harm's way, with the great majority stationed on the home front. However recruiting became increasingly difficult after 1910 as women preferred graduate nursing schools or the social work curriculum offered by state universities.  12th century Roman Catholic orders like the Dominicans and Carmelites have long lived in religious communities that work for the care of the sick. The first credentialed black nurse was Mary Mahoney, who graduated in 1879 from Dr. Zakrewska’s nursing school in Boston. A former nurse, Robinson was elected as president of the Lethbridge Relief Society and began district nursing services aimed at poor women and children. In the nineteenth century there were some Catholic orders of nursing that were trying to spread their message across Canada. , William Passavant in 1849 brought the first four deaconesses to Pittsburgh, in the United States, after visiting Kaiserswerth. See Florez, "Espana Sagrada", XIII, 539; Heusinger, "Ein Beitrag", etc. (Nurses belonging to the QAIMNS are informally called "QA"s.) Members of the Army Nursing Service served in every overseas British military campaign during World War II, as well as at military hospitals in Britain. , During the Spanish–American War of 1898, medical conditions in the tropical war zone were dangerous, with yellow fever and malaria endemic. Among the earliest were those built ca. In 1919, the Nurses’ Act created the first official register through the General Nursing … Some nurses came out to aid the wounded. , The American Methodists – the largest Protestant denomination—engaged in large-scale missionary activity in Asia and elsewhere in the world, making medical services a priority as early as the 1850s. A middle-aged widow, her accidental career began when she delivered money raised by local charities to the giant, if temporary, hospitals that the Union built at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. Australian nurses from this period became known as "grey ghosts" because of their drab uniforms with starched collar and cuffs. The British army wanted nothing to do with them so they drove ambulances and ran hospitals and casualty clearing stations for the Belgian and French armies.. In 1919 the AAGN compromised with the UFWA, and they worked together for the passage of the Public Health Nurses Act that allowed nurses to serve as midwives in regions without doctors. Summers, A. Government policy after 1900 was to secularize public institutions, and diminish the role the Catholic Churches. up nursing schools that attracted ambitious women from middle- and working-class backgrounds. , Nightingale's revelation of the abysmal nursing care afforded soldiers in the Crimean War energized reformers. Phoebe, the nurse mentioned in the New Testament, was a deaconess. This welfare system the church funded through collecting taxes on a large scale and possessing large farmlands and estates.  Between 1880 and 1915, 62 training schools were opened in the United States. eds. As caretakers of children, family and community, it was natural that women were the nurses, the caregivers, as human society evolved. The war thus led to greater respect for nurses, something that Congress acknowledged in 1892, when it belatedly passed a bill providing pensions to Civil War nurses. Canada was the first country in the world to grant women this privilege. , According to Geoffrey Blainey, the Catholic Church in Europe provided many of the services of a welfare state: "It conducted hospitals for the old and orphanages for the young; hospices for the sick of all ages; places for the lepers; and hostels or inns where pilgrims could buy a cheap bed and meal". They served in tented field hospitals. The modern deaconess movement began in Germany in 1836 when Theodor Fliedner and his wife opened the first deaconess motherhouse in Kaiserswerth on the Rhine. These services dated to 1902 and 1918, and enjoyed royal sponsorship. The French Catholics in New France (Canada) and New Orleans continued these traditions. The Army Nursing Service (ANS) oversaw the work of the nurses starting in 1881. the Charaka Samhita was written in India, stating that good medical practice requires a patient, physician, nurse, and medicines, with the nurse required to be knowledgeable, skilled at preparing formulations and dosage, sympathetic towards everyone, and clean. Accusing the AAGN of ignoring the medical needs of rural Alberta women, the leaders of the UFWA worked to improve economic and living conditions of women farmers. Cynthia A. Jurisson, "The Deaconess Movement," in Rosemary Skinner Keller et al., eds. Army and Navy nursing was highly attractive and a larger proportion of nurses volunteered for service higher than any other occupation in American society. She would visit and minister to the wounded all-day and night. Their work routinely included administering ether during haemostatic surgery and managing and training medical assistants (orderlies). 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